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This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of BORG, a self-optimizing storage system that performs automatic block reorganization based on the observed I/O workload.
BORG is motivated by three characteristics of I/O workloads: non-uniform access frequency distribution, temporal locality, and partial determinism in non-sequential accesses. To achieve its objective, BORG manages a small, dedicated partition on the disk drive, with the goal of servicing a majority of the I/O requests from within this partition with significantly reduced seek and rotational delays.
BORG is transparent to the rest of the storage stack, including applications, file system(s), and I/O schedulers, thereby requiring no or minimal modification to storage stack implementations. We evaluated a Linux implementation of BORG using several real-world workloads, including individual user desktop environments, a web-server, a virtual machine monitor, and an SVN server. These experiments comprehensively demonstrate BORG's effectiveness in improving I/O performance and its incurred resource overhead.